Diabetes… the comprehensive guide to modern-day disease

Diabetes… the comprehensive guide to modern-day disease
Diabetes… the comprehensive guide to modern-day disease

Diabetes is a disease of the modern age, whose prevalence is increasing in low- and middle-income countries faster than in high-income countries, and is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputations.

What is Diabetes?
It is a number of diseases that involve problems with the hormone insulin, and the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) usually secretes insulin to help the body store and use sugar and fats from the food that a person eats, and diabetes can occur when the pancreas produces too little insulin or It is not produced at all, or when the body does not respond adequately to insulin.
So far, there is no cure for diabetes, and people with diabetes need to manage their disease to stay healthy.
Diabetes can be effectively managed when caught early, however, when left untreated, it can lead to potential complications including heart disease, stroke, kidney damage and nerve damage.

Types of diabetes
There are 3 main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes.

diabetes (type 1)
According to the medical website WebMD, it is also called insulin-dependent diabetes, and it was previously called childhood diabetes because it often begins in childhood.

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results when the body attacks the pancreas with antibodies, but the organ is damaged and unable to produce insulin.

diabetes (type 2)
Type 2 diabetes used to be called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes, but it has become more common among children and adolescents over the past 20 years, largely due to the prevalence of obesity among young adults.

When you have type 2 diabetes, your pancreas usually produces some insulin, but it isn’t enough or your body isn’t able to use it properly. Insulin resistance occurs when your body’s cells don’t respond to it, usually found in fat, liver, and muscle cells.

Gestational Diabetes
Doctors often discover gestational diabetes in mid or late pregnancy.

Doctors report gestational diabetes in 2% to 10% of pregnancies, and it usually goes away after delivery, but up to 10% of women with gestational diabetes develop type 2 weeks or even years later.

Gestational diabetes is more dangerous to the baby than the mother, as it may cause him to gain unusual weight before birth, difficulty breathing at birth, or increase the risk of obesity and diabetes later in life, and things may develop to the need for an operation Cesarean section because of a large baby, or it may damage the heart, kidneys, nerves and eyes.

What are the most common symptoms of diabetes?
While type 1 diabetes symptoms can develop quickly, type 2 diabetes symptoms can develop more slowly, so you may not know you have diabetes until you have associated health problems.

According to Healthline, most people with type 2 diabetes may have “prediabetes,” which occurs when blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes.

Here are the most common symptoms of diabetes:

frequent urination

increased thirst

increased hunger


blurry vision

A feeling of numbness and tingling in the hands or feet

Weight loss

slow wound healing

Symptoms of diabetes (type 1)
Diabetic retinopathy

diabetic neuropathy

Kidney problems

heart disease

brain attack

Symptoms of diabetes (type 2)
frequent urination

increased thirst

constant hunger

extreme tiredness

blurry vision

slow wound healing

Tingling, numbness, or pain in the hands or feet

patches of dark skin

Itching and yeast infection

Symptoms of gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes does not cause any noticeable signs or symptoms, and this is where the screening tests are important, but in rare cases increased thirst or increased frequency of urination may be observed.

Symptoms of diabetes in men
Erectile dysfunction

Low male hormone “testosterone”

decreased libido

Symptoms of diabetes in women
vaginal yeast infection

Urinary tract infections


Polycystic ovary syndrome

Causes of diabetes
Diabetes (Type 1): Genetics may play a role in developing this type of diabetes, and it can also occur due to problems in the cells of the pancreas that make insulin.

Diabetes (Type 2): Obese people are at particular risk of developing this type of diabetes, as obesity often causes insulin resistance, forcing the pancreas to work harder to produce more of it, but this is still this Not sufficient to maintain required blood sugar levels.

Gestational diabetes: It occurs as a result of the transfer of blood sugar in a woman through the placenta to the fetus.

Symptoms that warrant a visit to the doctor
There are warning signs that predict diabetes are:

extreme thirst

Dry mouth

frequent urination



irritable behavior

blurred vision

Wounds do not heal quickly

itchy skin

vaginal yeast infection

The difference between diabetes and type 2 diabetes
The most important features of the disease: In diabetes (type 1), the body attacks the cells of the pancreas, which means that it cannot make any insulin, and in diabetes (type 2), the body is unable to produce enough insulin or the insulin made by the gym does not work properly .

Causes of the disease: There are no specific causes behind the development of diabetes (type 1), while obesity and ethnicity play a role in the development of diabetes (type 2).

Symptoms: The symptoms of diabetes (type 1) appear quickly and can be identified easily, while the symptoms of diabetes (type 2) cannot be detected easily because they appear on the patient slowly.

How to control the disease: In diabetes (Type 1), insulin is used to control the level of sugar in the blood, and in diabetes (Type 2) it can be managed in more ways (Type 1), which include medications, exercise and diet, as well as obtaining insulin.

Treatment and prevention: Currently, there is no specific treatment for diabetes (type 1) and research is still underway to reach it, while type 2 diabetes cannot be cured, but there is evidence to suggest that in many cases it can be prevented.

The most important tests to detect diabetes
The most common test is the glycated hemoglobin (A1c) test. It is a blood test that indicates the average blood sugar level over the previous two to three months. It measures the amount of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin. The higher the blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin binds to sugar. .

Random blood sugar test: Get a blood sample at an unspecified time. If your blood sugar levels are 200 milligrams per deciliter or higher, diabetes is likely.

Fasting blood sugar test: A blood sample is taken after a period of fasting, and if blood sugar levels are 126 milligrams per deciliter or higher, the diagnosis will be made with diabetes.

Oral glucose tolerance test: It is used exclusively to diagnose gestational diabetes, and it takes place in two stages: the first is a fasting blood sugar test, and the second the patient drinks a sugary liquid and then his blood sugar levels are measured periodically during the next two hours, and in the event that there is More than 200 milligrams per deciliter will be diagnosed with diabetes.
Diabetes prevention
diabetes (type 1)

Treatment for type 1 diabetes involves injecting insulin into the fatty tissue just below the skin, through:

Insulin pens that use prefilled cartridges and a fine needle

Jet injectors that use high-pressure air to send a mist of insulin through the skin

Pumps that send insulin through a tube to a catheter under the skin of your abdomen

Changes must also be made:

Frequent checks of blood sugar levels

Careful meal planning

daily exercises

Take insulin and other medications as needed

diabetes (type 2)

Maintain a healthy weight

Eat right

Playing sports

Some patients with it require medication.

gestational diabetes

Careful meal planning to make sure pregnant women get enough nutrients without too many fats and calories

daily exercises

Weight gain control

Take insulin to control blood sugar levels if needed

Frequently asked questions about diabetes
What foods are suitable for diabetics?

Yes, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes such as beans and low-fat dairy products.

Does insulin cause weight gain?

Diabetics get insulin in order to drive glucose into the cells for energy, and its job is to process calories, which is why it can – but doesn’t have to – cause weight gain. To prevent this from happening, extra calories must be burned with exercise.

Are people with diabetes more susceptible to infection with the emerging “Corona” virus?

There is not enough data to show whether people with diabetes are more likely to get COVID-19 compared to the general population.

The problem that diabetics face is that they are more likely to develop worse complications if they contract the emerging “Corona” virus, and they have no greater chance of contracting the Corona virus.

The difference between diabetes (type I and II)?

Type 2 diabetes is often milder than type 1 diabetes, but it can still cause major health complications, especially in the tiny blood vessels of the kidneys, nerves, and eyes. Type 2 also increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. .

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